the surrounding area contributes to the site's
line systems (e.g., fuel oil) will be located. Informa-
tion useful in evaluating utility systems is their
sense of enclosure or openness, creates desirable or
undesirable views from the site, contains visible
existing trunk lines to the site. Utility analyses
scenic features, or may need to be buffered from
available from DEH should be acquired. The fol-
the site's own visual condition will be defined.
d. On-site Conditions. On-site conditions include
lowing systems will be identified and their sizes
any existing factors which may affect develop-
(a) Water system with locations of fire hy-
ment, either positively or negatively. They include
drants near the site.
both natural and man-made factors but usually
(b) Sewer system.
emphasize the natural. Natural conditions are
(c) Storm drainage system with invert ele-
interwoven. Changes in one factor and location of
vations near the site.
the environment often create changes in other
(d) Electrical/gas system.
factors and locations. Although all detailed engi-
neering data may not yet be available, site analy-
(e) Telephone system.
(f) Other types of communication systems.
sis looks for conditions which would prevent devel-
(4) Environmental Conditions and Hazards.
opment of a facility, reduce the acceptable size or
Environmental conditions and hazards near the
density, or create costs prohibitive to construction.
site will be examined, beginning with a review of
Site analysis also looks for situations which can be
the environmental assessments prepared for the
used to reduce construction costs, reduce environ-
mental damage, and create a more aesthetic site
installation and the site. Storm drainage patterns,
indicating direction of flow, will be located. Storm-
(1) Geology. Geology influences the placement
water management areas which include the site
will be located. Floodplain areas, wetland areas
and design of facilities and activities on site.
and wildlife habitat areas (especially for threat-
Typical soils data is available from the Field
ened and endangered species) will be identified.
Operating Agency. Soil borings are required for
each project. The following conditions may create
The location of buried tanks will be identified. AR
200-2 and AR 415-15 provide further guidance on
problems and additional costs:
which do not support construction; layered deposits
(5) Historic and/or Archeological Resources.
which must be considered before placing struc-
tures, regrading, or changing the moisture content
Archeological or historic sites protected from de-
velopment will be located. Regulations governing
of the soil; expansive substrates which can crack
foundations, paving and other structural elements;
activity near them will be identified.
(6) Safety Hazards. Requirements and dis-
and an unstable angle of repose which can limit
tances necessary for fire codes, flood damage con-
(b) Shallow depth to bedrock.
trol, airfield and helicopter clear zones, and explo-
(c) Poor substrate strength which influences
sives safety from surrounding areas will be
the size, depth and spacing of building supports
(7) Physical Security. Such physical security
and the structural grid above ground.
(d) Substrate drainage which can compound
factors as the proximity of uncontrolled public use
problems of slope stability and increase groundwa-
areas or vantage points from which standoff at-
tacks could be launched will be considered if the
(e) Seismic factors (e.g., earthquakes and
threats to assets within the facility dictate con-
geologic faulting) which impact structural design.
cern. If the threat includes the use of explosives,
(2) Topography. Topography will be examined
the likely impact of collateral damage on nearby
to determine the various slopes on site. Slopes, to
facilities will be considered.
a large extent, influence the type of development
(8) Sources of Air, Noise and Light Pollution.
and support systems a site can sustain. Slopes are
Immediate sources of pollution will be identified
usually placed in categories. The categories de-
and their impact upon the site will be evaluated.
scribe potential problems, suggest types of suitable
Information may be found in the environmental
development, and indicate the amount of grading
impact assessments for the site and installation.
which will accommodate development. Topographi-
cally responsive buildings accommodate steeper
will be indicated.
slopes with their size and/or structural foundation.
(9) Visual Context. The site's viewshed (area
These buildings can lessen the need for regrading.
of visual enclosure) will be located if it extends
Figure 3-4 illustrates slope categories. Generally,