TM 5-803-11/AFJMAN 32-10139
7-4. Head and Neck Entrapment.
in children's play areas. These include copper or
zinc naphthenates and berates.
All elements within the play area will be de-
signed, constructed, and assembled to reduce the
risk of accidental head or neck entrapment when
used in children's play areas. These include creo-
children enter any opening headfirst or feetfirst.
sote, pentachlorophenol, and tributyl tin oxide. Fin-
ishes that contain pesticides will be avoided.
comes lodged within a space and cannot be with-
(4) Paints. All paints or similar finishes used in
drawn. Strangulation or emotional injury can re-
play areas will comply with the ASTM F 1487 stan-
s u l t . Both the opening size and shape are
dard to minimize lead exposure.
considered in determining entrapment potential.
e. Fasteners and Connecting Devices. All fasten-
Any opening that is closed on all sides and all angu-
ers and connecting and covering devices will be
lar openings will meet the entrapment criteria
corrosion-resistant, such as stainless steel, brass,
specified in ASTM F 1487. This ASTM standard
zinc plated metal, zinc-chromate plated metal, or
includes testing criteria that can be used to evalu-
(1) Unintentional Loosening. All fasteners, con-
necting and covering devices, and hardware in mov-
7-5. Maximum Recommended Equipment
ing joints will not loosen or be removable without
Heights by Age Group.
tools when installed according to manufacturer's in-
structions. All nuts and bolts will be protected from
Play equipment should be selected that allows
detachment with lock washers, self-locking nuts, or
safe and successful use by children of a specific
other locking means.
chronological age, mental age, and physical ability.
(2) Friction or Wear All moving parts, such as
Play equipment height and complexity should not
swing chains, will be connected to the fixed support
exceed the user's ability as defined by tables 71
with bearings or bearing surfaces that reduce fric-
and 72. These tables are based on the average user
tion or wear. A steel cable permanently connected to
in each age group. An individual child's skills may
a hanger assembly is acceptable.
vary from these averages and must be assessed by
parents and guardians.
(3) Entanglement. Entanglement occurs when
a child's clothing or items worn around a child's
7-6. Multiple Exits.
neck become caught or entwined on play equipment
A minimum of two exits should be provided on all
or site furnishings. Strangulation, loss of a body
part, or emotional injury may result. Fastening de-
play equipment, including composite structures and
playhouses. Climbers, such as rung ladders, climb-
vices, such as S-hooks, pelican hooks, C-hooks, or
ing nets, and arch climbers, should not be used as
clevis devices, will be closed as specified by ASTM F
the sole means of access to equipment intended for
1487 to prevent possible entanglement.
children under age five. A playhouse window may
f. Chain, Cable and Rope. Verification should be
qualify as an exit if it is a minimum of 400 mm (16
obtained from manufacturers that chain and cable
inches) in diameter.
meet structural integrity requirements specified by
ASTM F 1487. Chain should be a minimum size 4/0
7-7. Pinch, Crush, and Shear Points.
and zinc plated. Cable should be a minimum 25 mm
Pinch, crush, or shear points are junctures that
(1 inch) diameter and be composed of strands of
could cause contusion, laceration, abrasion, ampu-
steel cable with a synthetic covering of polypropyl-
tation, or fracture during use. A pinch, crush, or
ene or dacron. Rope will not be used in unsuper-
shear point is defined by ASTM F 1487 as any point
vised children's outdoor play areas. Cable and
that entraps a 16 mm (5/8-inch) diameter rod at one
chains that are not properly designed can cause
strangulation or injuries. To avoid these hazards, all
Table 7-1. Recommended Composite Structure Platform Heights.
chains and cables will meet ASTM F 1487 require-
g. New Construction Materials. New materials
are constantly being developed for manufacturing
use. Recent examples include the increased use of
plastics and recycled materials. If any materials
used in construction do not have demonstrated du-
rability in play areas or the outdoors, documenta-
tion or test results will be obtained from manufac-
turers to verify durability.