tage of persons living in the housing units on
or patrol can be provided, or unless the site can
be given enhanced visibility, vandal-proof facil-
the other side of the base. A goal of the recre-
ation plan is to establish a more equitable dis-
ities, or controlled access after hours. Look first
tribution of day-use facilities. Therefore, the less
for obvious hazards to health and safety and
attractive, less accessible site may be selected
then, consider the remoteness or seclusion of a
because of its proximity to the disadvantaged
site as a contributing factor to potential safety.
user population in order to satisfy this specific
(3) Access. Does the user population have
ready access to the site? Is the existing trans-
c. Functional relationships. Functional rela-
portation system adequate to handle the antic-
tionships express the degree of dependence be-
ipated traffic? Does the pattern of circulation
tween activities on the installation. Functional
to and from and within the site facilitate access
relationship diagrams depict ideal arrange-
and use, or does it thwart or discourage use?
ments of outdoor recreation activities for each
(4) Proximity to convenience facilities. Are
outdoor recreation area in order to achieve op-
comfort and other support facilities within con-
venient reach of the site?
timal efficiency, convenience and support. They
indicate which activities require physical con-
(5) Physical constraints. Do the soils of the
nections or separation in order to achieve this
site have a fragipan ( a compacted soil layer be-
neath the surface ) or high water table? Does
optimal situation. The diagrams illustrate the
relative importance of the activities to each other.
pending of surface runoff occur and last for long
periods? What is the erosion potential of the
The express need for connections between ac-
tivities later serves as the basis for planning
site? What is the depth to bedrock? Is there an
aquifer? How steep is the site? Are there rare,
circulation (fig 5-2).
threatened or endangered plants or animals or
d. Conceptual alternatives. Almost every site
any other vulnerable natural or cultural fea-
can be developed in a variety of ways. Concep-
tures on the site?
tual alternatives graphically illustrate the gen-
eral location of proposed recreation activities
(6) Availability of utilities. If the intended
and facilities, circulation and utilities (fig 5-3 ).
use requires support structures, are utilities
They also depict the way the activities, facilities,
available (gas and/or electric service, telephone,
circulation and utilities are influenced by the
water) ? If not, is it feasible to provide utilities?
site's particular opportunities and constraints.
(7) Space requirements. For a quality out-
The outdoor recreation director should list and
door recreation experience, outdoor recreation
prioritize the advantages and disadvantages of
space standards prescribe a certain amount of
each concept for comparison. The most favor-
space per user. Such standards were used in the
able concept becomes the basis for the Long-
analysis of supply and demand and in the esti-
Range Plan for Future Development. Often, the
mation of carrying capacity and should be used
final concept may incorporate ideas and fea-
throughout the planning process to determine
tures from more than one of the alternatives.
how many of the gross number of facilities can
be accommodated at any particular location.
(8) Agreement with goals and objectives.
5-3. Site selection guidelines for
The desirability of a site for a given activity is
outdoor recreation activities.
not always dependent on such factors as acces-
The following criteria should be considered when
sibility or physical constraints. The outdoor rec-
planning for various outdoor recreation activi-
r e a t i o n director should make continuous
ties. The activities discussed do not constitute
reference to his goals and objectives. As an ex-
a comprehensive list, but are representative of
ample, consider a director faced with selecting
the most common forms of outdoor recreation.
a site for a new day-use picnic and play area.
The factors discussed under each activity should
Two sites have the capacity to accommodate the
serve as general guidance for selecting a site or
required amount of facilities. One site near other
locating an activity on a site.
existing day-use areas would make an excellent
a. Camping, primitive (undeveloped sites).
site on the basis of physical features, access and
Participants in this activity generally do not ex-
so on, while the other site is a less attractive
pect, and will not tolerate or accept, high-use
site with moderately intrusive adjacent land uses
densities. Both the vegetative and topographic
and poor access. However, in the evaluation of
characteristics of the site affect the perceived
demand, a user complaint surfaced in regard to
closeness of the campsites. A 100-acre area that
the clustering of day-use sites on one side of the
is heavily wooded and moderately sloping can
installation to the inconvenience and disadvan-