TM 5-852-9/AFR 88-19, Vol. IX
1-1. Purpose. The purpose of this manual is to provide criteria and guidance for the design of buildings in
arctic and subarctic regions. This manual supplements TM 5-852-1/AFR 88-19, Volume 1.
1-2. Scope. This manual presents specialized design criteria for existing environmental conditions. These
criteria pertain to the building proper and to interior utilities. Other manuals which pertain to arctic and
subarctic construction are:
TM 5-852-1/AFR 88-19, Volume 1, Arctic and Subarctic Construction: General Provisions.
TM 5-852-2/AFR 88-19, Volume 2, Arctic and Subarctic Construction: Site Selection and Development.
TM 5-852-4/AFM 88-19, chapter 4, Arctic and Subarctic Construction: Foundations for Structures.
TM 5-852-5/AFR 88-19, Volume 5, Arctic and Subarctic Construction: Utilities.
1-3. Conceptual planning considerations. The facility's basic functional needs must be provided, while total
costs are minimized. Particular attention must be given to the harsh environmental stresses, the material
availability, the transportation methods to the site, the amount and skill of the available labor force, the
relatively short construction season, and conditions under which material will be stored and the facility
erected. Constraints that personnel and logistics problems pose to operation and maintenance of remote
facilities must be considered. Three primary criteria should be observed: the system must be reliable; easy
access for routine and emergency operation and maintenance must be provided; and the system must be as
simple as possible. Under harsh environmental conditions, especially in emergency situations, complexity
often dooms a system to failure.
a. Morale. Personnel morale, an important but difficult to define factor, must be carefully considered
during design. During the long winter, with little daylight and little contrast between land, sea and sky, the
monotony can have a negative influence on personnel conduct and efficiency. Comfortable living quarters
need to incorporate the creative use of warm, inviting colors and textures. Spatial requirements in excess of
those used in the contiguous United States are sometimes necessary. At remote sites, the station becomes
the total environment for personnel for sustained periods. Therefore, it may be appropriate to provide
individual rooms for the permanent staff, plus single, double or multiple occupancy rooms for visitors.
Additional personnel may be required for summer maintenance and emergency winter help. Rooms must be
available for those persons. Additional recreational space usable for games, reading, and hobbies is required
to counteract the effects of excessive confinement. Many larger remote sites contain a gymnasium and
bowling alley, plus separate lounges for officers, noncommissioned officers, and enlisted personnel. Of equal
importance to morale are proper temperature control and soundproofing. When personnel are essentially
confined to quarters because of the environment, proper temperature for both living and sleeping areas is a
major psychological influence. Soundproofing to provide quiet areas will also have a major psychological
b. Multiple-building concept. Originally construction at remote sites usually consisted of many single-
function structures, often connected by enclosed passageways. Such facilities occupy large acreages. There
are large roof and exterior wall surfaces to maintain which lose heat to the exterior. Thus, large capacity
heating systems are required. If there is a central plant, extensive distribution systems are needed. Some
enclosed passageways require heat and maintenance but provide limited benefits. Advantageously, however,
many small, single-function buildings do not require mechanical ventilation and can be placed on simple,
standard foundations which tolerate more foundation movement. Such buildings can minimize fire losses and
be constructed more easily on uneven terrain. Standard designs can frequently be site adapted. The multiple-
building concept provides adaptability for rearrangement, expansion, or an addition of functions. In cold
weather there are psychological advantages in being able to get away from living and working areas by
walking in the covered passageways. The multiple-building concept is shown in figure 1 - 1.
c. Composite building concept. Combining functions into a single composite building should be
considered, especially for remote areas and small installations. Since a composite building has a greater
volume-to-surface-area ratio, initial construction costs are usually lower, heating is less expensive, and
maintenance requirements are reduced. Central heating reduces one fire hazard, but the possible loss of the