tions, in addition to the implied time-independent

culating the thermal resistance of typical shapes and

steady-state assumptions, are indicated. Some

bodies. Equations are given in figure 12-4 for

comments intended to facilitate application of the

estimating the temperature drop (or gain) along a

equations are also included. Where applicable,

pipeline system, and simple procedures to determine

procedures are given for relevant thermal resistance,

freeze-up times under no-flow conditions are

rates of heat flow and insulation thicknesses.

included.

(2) Figure 12-6 gives similar information for

(4) To facilitate computation, numerical

uninsulated and insulated buried pipes. In each of

values for certain variables in some of the calcula-

these two cases, the presence of thawed ground

tions may be read directly from figures 12-8, 12-9

around the pipe is considered, and equations are

and 12-10. These curves present a partial solution

included to determine the dimensions of the result-

for some of the heat loss equations. Their use is

demonstrated in paragraphs 12-9*d *and *f*.

ing thaw cylinder.

(3) Figure 12-7 presents procedures for cal-

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