TM 5-852-4/AFM 88-19, Chap. 4
For these data, the test technique employed was that
Within the test ranges the relative effects are small
given by Stevens . Complex moduli may be used as
except for partially saturated clay. However, the effect of
equivalent to elastic moduli when damping is normally
stress and/or frequency on the shear modulus could be
significant for stresses and/or frequencies outside these
(h) As shown in figure 4-56, complex
Therefore, these relationships are
sufficiently important to warrant consideration when
Young's modulus of 100 percent ice-saturated, non-
choosing a modulus for design.
plastic frozen soils increases sharply as the ice
(k) Smith91 has published data on
volume/soil volume ratio decreases.
As the ratio
properties of snow and ice under vibrating loads.
increases the modulus approaches that of ice. The
(I) The data presented in this manual
relationship shown does not appear to apply for plastic
and in the reference publications serve only as a guide
(i) Figures 4-57 and 4-58 show the
and it will be necessary in most problem cases to carry
relationships of complex shear and Young's moduli to
out a test program covering the range of soil conditions,
percent ice saturation. The moduli decrease rapidly with
decrease in percent saturation, obviously approaching
the moduli in a non-frozen state.
(j) Figures 4-59 and 4-60 show the relationship
between shear modulus, stress level, and frequency.
U. S. Army Corps of Engineers
Figure 4-56. Complex dynamic Young's modulus vs. volume ice/volume soil ratio for frozen saturated, non-plastic soils.