TM 5-852-1/AFR 88-19, Volume 1
Criteria and guidance for drainage around structures are
are outlined in TM 5-852-9/AFM 88-19, Chap. 9. Since
presented in TM 5-852-4/AFM 88-19, Chap. 4.
removal of ice and snow during cold weather is often
necessary, the insulation and roof covering should be
able to withstand such treatment. Personnel doors
Building design practices
should open inward so that they can't be blocked by
drifted snow or damaged by high winds. Vestibules or
a. Buildings generally should be designed and
storm entrances should be used if needed. If doors must
constructed in accordance with standard practice for
open outward because of fire regulations, an apron
arctic and subarctic regions. Special attention should be
should be provided that is resistant to the effects of
given to foundations, exposure and adaptation to the
The wide temperature range,
environmental conditions. Factors affecting the morale
causing large thermal expansions and contractions,
of the occupants are also important considerations in
should be considered in spacing of expansion joints.
isolated arctic locations, and thus habitability criteria
Adequate facilities for drying wet or damp
(e.g., security, comfort, privacy, aesthetics, socialization,
clothing must be provided near sleeping quarters. When
mobility, etc.) should be carefully considered during the
practical, the warm air used for drying should be expelled
design of physical facilities. Structure design should be
from the building by an exhaust fan. Since it is not
closely linked with foundation design concepts in order
advisable to bring metal equipment into warm buildings
that these two will be compatible with one another in
for overnight storage, a special place, protected from the
interface, cost and other aspects.
weather, for storing such equipment should be provided.
b. In a cold regions environment, building type
The psychological effect of window size and spacing
and materials should be selected for ease and speed of
(and, where the interior is to be painted, of the various
erection and resistance to fire, high winds and low
colors used) should be given consideration to help
temperatures. Building geometry and layout, the effects
of low temperatures on the structural properties of
sometimes affects personnel who work in bleak, isolated
regions of the far north. Fire protection, prevention and
conservation, snow infiltration, and snow and ice
fire-fighting measures should be very carefully
accumulation and removal should be examined.
considered in regard to all buildings and installations.
c. Prefabricated panels or complete buildings
The consequences of a serious fire in the cold regions
designed for the Arctic are excellent for use at remote
are in general much more serious than in temperate
arctic sites. Lightweight materials are important in
regions where native supplies are scarce and
g. Where the use of a building results in an
transportation is difficult. High-early-strength cement is
atmosphere of relatively high humidity within the building,
good for cold-weather concreting, but precast concrete is
such as in power and water-treatment plants, special
better than cast-in-place construction. The buildings
care should be exercised in the design to reduce to a
should be located on well-drained sites where
practical minimum the condensate that may form on cold
practicable. The sites should be where snow drifting will
walls, windows and ceilings within the buildings.
be low. The layout of utilities should be considered.
Provisions should be made to avoid water dripping onto
Wind and snow load design assumptions should be
personnel and critical equipment within the structure. No
based on long-term weather records wherever possible.
condensate should be allowed to drip on the floors within
d. Precautions should be taken to minimize
the structures, particularly in front of doors that open to
probable icing resulting from the freezing of water from
the outside. Vapor barriers that are properly designed
snow melting on roofs and nearby drifts. This is
and installed should be provided.
especially true at eaves, in front of doors, and around fire
h. During winter in the far north it may be
hydrants and other critical service and utility areas.
necessary to humidify the air of living quarters. This
Ducts from the building's heating system may be
arises from the low humidity of the air in such regions of
installed in the eaves to prevent the dangerous growth of
large icicles. Drifting of snow, possible damage from
humidity associated with heated structures. Whether
snow slides, avalanches, high winds, ice jams and high
building interiors are humidified or not, the .water vapor
water will in some instances require consideration in the
pressure differentials between interior and exterior
placement and orientation of buildings and in location of
spaces in the winter are normally very large in the cold
services. Latrines and washrooms should be located at
regions. The resulting very steep pressure gradients
the lee end of living quarters. Where wind directions are
indicate the great importance of properly designed and
consistent, the orientation of buildings with the direction
installed vapor barriers.
of the strongest winds may reduce stresses on wind-
For most structures simple designs are
bracing elements of the structures.
best. Continuity in design is not usually worthwhile for
e. Metal, conventional built-up and protected
weight and cost reduction, and the effects of differential
membrane roofs have been found satisfactory if properly
Precautions that must be taken